The highly curved radius and ulna give the long arms a great insertion area for the massive brachialis.

• 10 MYA D. brancoi is similar in dental size to chimpanzees and is well known through cranial remains.

Phalanges are curved and the hands are large. As indicated through dental remains, D. crusafonte was probably larger than D. laietanus. • IPS 2, Associated set of mandibular teeth with P3 – M3 • Schlosser, 1901 The zygomatic bone of Dryopithecus displays characters (overall robusticity and 3 zygomaxillary foramina found on the frontal process that are functionally related to the presence of cheek pads (Moya – Sola and Kohler).

All 4 species (D. brancoi, D. crusafonte, D. fontani, D. laietanus) display the following traits: robust incisors, compressed canines, elongated premolars and molars that were thinly enameled and robust jaws in males.

The legs are short with a long femoral head with short neck and high angle are common in apes with high range of hip mobility.

Dryopithecus fontani According to Hartwig, “The frontal bone is relatively horizontal with thick temporal ridges and faint supraorbital ridges.

• Left M3 All 4 species (D. brancoi, D. crusafonte, D. fontani, D. laietanus) display the following traits: robust incisors, compressed canines, elongated premolars and molars that were thinly enameled and robust jaws in males.

• Germany and Hungary

Post cranial remains indicate that D. laietanus was the smallest of the genus. • Begun, 1992 According to Hartwig, “The M1 is larger than M2, the maxillary premolars are longer than D. brancoi, and the maxillary molars are broader than D. laietanus. You don't have to be a zoologist to know Europe isn't exactly known for its wealth of indigenous monkeys or apes.

Several distinct forms of Dryopithecus are known, including small, medium, and large, gorilla-sized animals.

(drī'ōpəthē`kəs, –pĭth`əkəs), an extinct group of apes. According to Hartwig, “The canines of D. fontani and the male mandibular remains are among the largest of the genus. • Lartet, 1856 Dryopithecus is found as fossils in Miocene and Pliocene deposits (23 to 2.6 million years old) and apparently originated in Africa. The first species of Dryopithecus discovered was found in France in 1856.

The humerus is long and straight with a possible medial twist of the head as in African apes and humans.”, Dryopithecus laietanus Dryopithecus was a genus of apes that is known from from Eastern Africa into Eurasia. • 2 localities in France and 1 in Austria These characters are shared with both Sivapithecus and Pongo, strengthening the hypothesis that Sivapithecus and Dryopithecus are both ancestral to Pongo.”, Dryopithecus crusafonte The geographic ranges of living apes do not extend north of the tropics.

Postorbital constriction is moderate, as seen in Pan.”. The first species of Dryopithecus was discovered at the site of Saint-Gaudens, Haute-Garonne, France, in 1856. The maxilla contains large alveolar processes and sinuses. •10-9.5 MYA Other dryopithecids have been found in Hungary, Spain, and China. • 12 – 11 MYA The five-cusp and fissure pattern of its molar teeth, known as the Y-5 arrangement, is typical of the dryopithecids and of hominoids in general. Dryopithecus is a genus mainly defined by isolated dental remains. Fossils about 20 million years old have been found in Africa, Asia, and Europe.

• IPS 1798/1799, Left maxilla with P3 – M2 and associated left canine fragment • MNHN-AC 36, Fragmented subadult mandible containing canine through M2 on both left and right sides and fragment of symphysis

• Northeast Spain

Dryopithecus was a genus of apes that is known from East Africa into Eurasia during the late Miocene period. Dryopithecus::overview 2 minute read Today, the only non-human primate native to Europe is the Barbary macaque, which has extended its North African range to a small area including Gibraltar, on the southern coast of Iberia. • Villalta and Crusafont, 1944

Dryopithecus A genus of extinct apes, fossils of which have been found in Europe and Asia and dated to the mid-Miocene (about 16–7 million years ago). The female mandibles are gracile when compared to the males and are among the smallest of the genus, suggesting extreme sexual dimorphism. As seen in D. fontani, female mandibles are gracile when compared to the males.

•10.5 MYA

• Spain Dryopithecus had a semierect posture and is generally believed to be ancestral to modern apes and man. The overall tooth size is more robust than D. fontani.”, Dryopithecus brancoi It lived during the Upper Miocene period, from 12 to 9 million years ago, and probably includes the common ancestor of the lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs) and the great apes.

According to Moya – Sola and Kohler, “The clavicle is long and vertically angled. Dryopithecus' Unusual Location The oddest fact about Dryopithecus—and one that's generated a great deal of confusion—is that this ancient primate was found mostly in western Europe rather than in Africa. D. fontani is identified through fragmentary male and female mandibles, isolated teeth, and a humeral shaft. Dryopithecus is a genus mainly defined by isolated dental remains. Thus, it may be surprising that once Europe was the home to a considerable diversity of apes.



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