2.

Competition as a universal social process is found in all fields of social life.

Generally in our society there is competition for getting jobs.

So the role of co-operation may be discussed from two angles.

It is a way of inventing social environments which helps people to work together whether they like it or not. "[38], commonly, international students who come into a new country to study abroad are confronted with "strangeness.

In other words it constitutes human contact and interaction.

There are some factors which facilitate the process of assimilation are given below. Social Process has the follow­ing essential elements.

From the above discussion we come to know that conflict has both positive and negative importance. Some of these are: Extreme differences in cultural background act as the most powerful impediment in the way of assimilation. Without interaction there would be no social life. So differences in economic standard stand as an obstruction in the process of assimilation. In addition throughout history, voluntary assimilation is often in response to pressure from a more predominant culture, and conformity is a solution for people to remain in safety. It is a goal oriented social process. Social interaction takes place between (i) Individual and individual (ii) Individual and group (iii) Group and group.

In this type of conflict the conflicting individuals or groups try to harm each other directly to attain the goal or reward at the expense of their opponents even by going to the extent of injuring or destroying their rivals. But when the individuals or groups compete with each other, not on personal level but as members of group, competition is impersonal.

It implies that any increase in the availability of opportunities or equality in their distribution would create conditions favourable to the growth of assimilative process. So from the above discussion we come to know that healthy and fair competition should be encouraged instead of unfair and unrestricted competition.

He argued that those territories have very tiny isolated populations and proposed to integrate them into the larger Brazilian society. Its positive functions are more important than the negative ones.

(3) According to Dawson and Gettys, “Social interaction is a process whereby men interpenetrate the minds of each other”. The process of assimilation takes place mainly at three levels: A socialized individual when enters or joins a new group having different cultural patterns, he or she has to adopt new patterns of values, habits, customs and beliefs of the other group in order to be fully accepted by the new group. For example, the conflict between the labour and management is resolved through the arbitration or arbitrator.

[31] The survey indicated the whites tolerated immigrants in their home country. Some of the definitions given by eminent scholars are the following: (i) In the opinion of Bogardus, “Assimilation is a process whereby attitudes of many persons are united and thus develop into a united group.”, (ii) Ogburn and Nimkoff defines assimilation, “As the process whereby individuals or groups once dissimilar become similar, that is, become identified in their interest and outlook.”, (iii) Biesanz and Biesanz hold the view that, “Assimilation is the social process whereby individuals or groups come to share the same sentiments and goals.”, (iv) Hurton and Hunt say that, “The process of mutual cultural diffusion through which persons and groups come to share a common culture is called assimilation.”, (v) In the words of Park and Burgess, “Assimilation is a process of interpenetration and fusion in which persons and groups acquire the memories, sentiments and attitudes of other persons or groups and, by sharing their experience and history, are incorporated into a common cultural life.”. He also performs many and varied social activities as per his nature, needs and roles.

Assimilation makes the dissimilar individuals or groups similar because it is a process by which individuals or groups come to share the same sentiments and goals.

It owes its origin to personal satisfaction. Competition is a continuous process as it never comes to an end.

When cultures combine, assimilation occurs on many levels. It is established through the medium of radio, telephone etc.

It is a complex process through which an immigrant integrates themselves into a new country.

Hence co­operation means working together or joint activity for the achievement of common goal or goals.

Unconsciously one assimilate himself with others.

It depends upon the nature of contacts. For example, the conflict between Whites and Negroes. But accommodation is mainly an unconscious activity. Genetic assimilation commenced early and continued - the 1961 New Zealand census classified only 62.2% of Maori as "full-blood Maoris". Factors hindering assimilation or harmful to assimilation: There are some factors which are harmful to the growth of assimilation or the factors which obstruct the process of assimilation.

When two groups with dissimilar patterns of behaviour come in close contact, they inevitably affect each other. The schools actively worked to alienate children from their cultural roots. Litigation takes place. conflict. They patiently bear the differences that exist between them. Because co-operation as a process of integration has the quality to bring end to different problems through united activities. The term 'assimilation' again is in general use, being applied most often to the process whereby large numbers of migrants from Europe were absorbed into the American population during the 19th and the early part of the 20th century. It results in the promotion of cultural unity which leads to social integration.

Moreover, conflict plays a very important role in consolidating a group internally.

They generally compete for higher standard of living. Conflict diverts members’ attention from group objectives. (c) Litigation is judicial by nature. Positive social contact includes co-operation, accommodation and assimilation while negative social contact includes hatred, jealousy and conflict. Secondly, the size of the new gateways may influence immigrant assimilation.



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