were owned by the Russian nobility, the Tsar and religious 24 Orthodox priests’ widows who did not remarry had retained their husbands’ status since 1808. Combining the ideas of “state institution” and “social group,” by the 1820s this term was being applied beyond the four principal estates – nobility, townspeople, clergy, and peasants – to other social groups, always with the implication of cultural and legal distinctiveness. 39504 (17 April 1863): 352. AccueilNuméros51/2-3Soslovie and the “Foreign” Clergi... AbstractThis essay addresses a significant imperial dimension of the soslovie question by analyzing the estate status of the religious servitors of Russia’s non-Orthodox faiths (the “foreign confessions”). True, the Armenian clergy had a status essentially identical to that of the Orthodox, and ordination in Catholicism endowed servitors with a distinct social status (though the institution of celibacy distinguished the Catholic clergy substantially from the married clergy of the eastern Christian confessions).99 Protestant pastors simply acquired personal nobility, which was something different from a distinct soslovie or even real membership in the nobility.100 Despite the state’s apparent contemplation of creating a Muslim clergy as a distinct order, this idea was realized only partially in Crimea, and even then with the retention of a clear distinction between higher and lower clergy. The reasons for this outcome should be sought in a combination of practical and ideological concerns having to do with the state’s limited knowledge about non-Orthodox servitors, its commitments to the privileging of (Orthodox) Christianity in Russia’s social order, and broader shifts in the state’s soslovie policies. The discussion here also casts doubt on Confino’s assertion that the clergy’s recognition as a soslovie “did not add much to their internal structure and social functions” (688), if only because of clerical wives and children. IX (1842), art.

This provision was grandfathered in, so that members of the clerical estate who did not occupy a post could retain certain rights (exemption from taxes and duties) but were compelled within one year to enroll in another, non-clerical social status. The first, Kliuchevskii remarks, were granted “to an entire class of society in permanent possession” and were therefore distinct both from privileges given to a particular person or family and from rights acquired through service or, more accurately, through the occupation of a particular post. 62 RGIA, f. 821 op. In the 19th century it was estimated that about 50 per cent of the In 1850, the State Council accordingly granted them exemptions from military conscription and from corporal punishment – privileges that had already been conferred on the upper echelons of the Islamic hierarchy.76 But in most cases such developments stopped short of any meaningful change. 71 That is, only the hakham (for Karaites) and bandido-khambo, shiretuis, and lamas (for Buddhists). 4 For an excellent example of this approach, see Mikhail Dolbilov’s analysis of the nationalist dimensions of the emancipation of 1861: “The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia and the Nationalism of the Imperial Bureaucracy,” in T. Hayashi, ed., The Construction and Deconstruction of National Histories in Slavic Eurasia (Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, 2003), 205-230. 27 and 29 of the Polozhenie of 1853, as well as the registry at its end, in Ermakova, Buddiiskii mir, 59-65; Ulanov, “Buddiiskoe-Lamaiskoe,” 8.

passes still have to be accepted by the Tsar so any law he disapproves The total number of appointed members of the Council summoned by the Sovereign Emperor to deliberate in the Council must not exceed the total number of the elected members of the Council. Admittedly, she frames her book in terms of “Orthodox Great Russian society” (x), but this formulation supposes a discrete entity, whose boundaries are clear and in which non-Orthodox servitors have no place. See Freeze, Parish Clergy, 400; RGIA, f. 821, op.

The reforms of the 1860s had logically raised the question of the status of priests’ wives, especially in widowhood. For Orthodoxy, Peter the Great established a new clerical registry (dukhovnyi shtat) to address this problem in 1722. There also continued to be certain anomalies. 25, no. 25, no. Legislative proposals initiated in the State Council or the State Duma and rejected by one of these institutions, can be resubmitted for legislative consideration during the same session, provided the Sovereign Emperor so decrees.

1097, 1107-1108; “Polozhenie o lamaiskom dukhovenstve v vostochnoi Sibiri,” in T.V. 18 Freeze, “Soslovie Paradigm,” esp. 67 See, especially, an enactment of 1848, which dismissed any further claims to membership in the Muslim clergy based on heredity. Additional over-budget funds for war-time needs and for special preparations preceding a war become available to all departments by supreme command in circumstances defined by law.

Here it is notable that the principal tsarist proponent of extending the exemption from corporal punishment to the “Muslim clergy” – Minister of State Domains Pavel Kiselev – felt compelled to state explicitly that he had no intention of equalizing the rights of the Muslim clergy with those of “the clergy of the Christian confessions.”101 The creation of estates might establish a disturbing equivalence, implying that the state was somehow indifferent to the content of the various religions that these servitors represented. In a broader sense, I seek to determine the extent to which a distinct “spiritual domain” (dukhovnoe vedomstvo) in Imperial Russia actually encompassed non-Orthodox religions,14 and thus to identify with greater precision the role of religion, in a supra-confessional sense, in the organization and functioning of the Russian Empire. This had been true for centuries; in 1861, however, this 46 In general, women gained the social status of their husbands if it was higher than their own, but retained their own status (whether by birth or an earlier marriage) if it was not. Before the five-year term of office expires, the State Duma can be dissolved by decree of the Sovereign Emperor.

Consider also the issue of “aliens” (inorodtsy) as an estate – and more – as recounted in John W. Slocum in “Who, and When, Were the Inorodtsy? 52 Svod zakonov, vol. The Russian Senate was a council of high-ranked civil servants and military commanders that had the right to make state decisions in absence of the Tsar himself. 37 Svod zakonov, vol.

Alexander III & the State Council: Bureaucracy & Counter- Reform in Late Imperial Russia. Arguably it was only with the first edition of the Law Digest (1832) that even the status rights of the Orthodox clergy were fully codified in law. 73 The senate ruled in 1822 that mullahs were subject to corporal punishment (RGIA, f. 796, op. Government loans to cover budget and over-budget expenditures are permitted through the same procedures as established for approval of the State Budget's revenues and expenses. 26 The problem of clerical wives was accordingly addressed without their exclusion from the estate, allowing this to occur only when widows remarried outside of the order.

And although the status of the clergy had become firmly grounded in heredity through reforms of the 1760s-70s, its standing as a legal estate is probably best dated to the early nineteenth century.

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