The two armies confronted each other over several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much weaker position than Pompey. Lucan in his poem about the Civil War regularly uses the name Pharsālia, and this term is also used by the epitomiser of Livy and by Tacitus. Pressured by the senators present and by his officers, he reluctantly engaged in battle and suffered an overwhelming defeat, ultimately fleeing the camp and his men, disguised as an ordinary citizen. Many scholars, therefore, unsure of the site of Palaepharsalos, followed Appian (2.75) and located the battle of 48 BC south of the Enipeus or close to Pharsalos (today's Pharsala). Realizing Caesar's difficulty in keeping his troops supplied, Pompey decided to simply mirror Caesar's forces and let hunger do the fighting for him. A dispute between Caesar and the optimates faction with many of Rome’s aristocrats and well to do patricians in the Senate of Rome,[2] culminated in Caesar marching his army on Rome and forcing Pompey, accompanied by much of the Roman Senate, to flee in 49 BC from Italy to Greece, where he could better conscript an army to face his former ally. There is a theory that claimed the existence of an earlier Pharsalos in the form of a locality identified as Palaepharsalus. A pirate island. Check … Caesar, defying convention, chose to cross the Adriatic during the winter, with only half his fleet at a time. John D. Morgan in his definitive "Palae-pharsalus – the Battle and the Town",[7] shows that Palaepharsalus cannot have been at Palaiokastro, as Béquignon thought (a site abandoned c. 500 BC), nor the hill of Fatih-Dzami within the walls of Pharsalus itself, as Kromayer (1903, 1931) and Gwatkin thought; and Morgan argues that it is probably also not the hill of Khtouri (Koutouri), some 7 miles north-west of Pharsalus on the south bank of the Enipeus, as Lucas and Holmes thought, although that remains a possibility. After trapping Caesar in Thessaly, the prominent senators in Pompey's camp began to argue loudly for a more decisive victory. The whole area suffered great destruction during the Roman Civil War. Caesar himself, in his Commentarii de Bello Civili, mentions few place-names;[5] and although the battle is called after Pharsalos by modern authors, four ancient writers – the author of the Bellum Alexandrinum (48.1), Frontinus (Strategemata 2.3.22), Eutropius (20), and Orosius (6.15.27) – place it specifically at Palaepharsalus ("Old" Pharsalus). Pompey's legions were arrayed in the traditional three line formation (triplex acies): four cohorts in the front line and three in the second and third lines each. Caesar ordered a wall to be built around Pompey's position in order to cut off water and pasture land for his horses. Pompey's two sons, Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompey, and the Pompeian faction, led now by Metellus Scipio and Cato, survived and fought for their cause in the name of Pompey the Great. [12] It has therefore been argued by some scholars that "Pharsalia" would be a more accurate name for the battle than Pharsalus. Pompey wanted to delay, knowing the enemy would eventually surrender from hunger and exhaustion. The former found himself isolated in a hostile country with only 22,000 legionaries and short of provisions, while on the other side of the river he was faced by Pompey with an army about twice as large in number. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). Key points of World Map - Locations - Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag. Farsala is located 38 km south of Larissa, 41 km east of Karditsa, 44 km north of Lamia and 49 km west of Volos. Because of them Rome was being compelled to fight both in her own defense and against herself, so that even if victorious she would be vanquished. For the city of Rome and its entire empire, even then great and mighty, lay before them as the prize, since it was clear to all that it would be the slave of him who then conquered. The identification seems to be confirmed by the location of a place misspelled "Palfari" or "Falaphari" shown on a medieval route map of the road just north of Pharsalus. "[42] The battle itself did not end the civil war but it was decisive and gave Caesar a much needed boost in legitimacy. Cotton and livestock are the main agricultural products, and many inhabitants are employed in the production of textile. [8] This site is some six miles (10 km) north of Pharsalus, and three miles north of the river Enipeus, and not only has remains dating back to neolithic times but also signs of habitation in the 1st century BC and later. Scan the place well with the eagle vision to get the location of all the guards around. [22] Many of the foreigners were serving under their own rulers, for more than a dozen despots and petty kings under Roman influence in the east were Pompey's personal clients and some elected to attend in person, or send proxies.[20]. 3 x Burn War Supplies. The contemporary town has no historical or medieval buildings left as a result of a World War II bombardment and a catastrophic earthquake that struck the area in 1954. [5] Medius of Larissa took Pharsalus by force, about 395 BC. Remember the supplies take time to burn down and you will face many different enemies as these forts are heavily guarded. 5 x Burn War Supplies. At the commencement of the Peloponnesian War, Pharsalus was one of the Thessalian towns that sent succour to the Athenians. [11] It is also mentioned by Hierocles in the sixth century.[12]. After seemingly vanquishing all his enemies and bringing peace to Rome, he was assassinated in 44 BC by friends, in a conspiracy organized by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. The geographer Strabo speaks of two towns, Old Pharsalos, Παλαιοφάρσαλος (Palaeopharsalos) and Pharsalos, existing in historical times. These two details perhaps imply that the two cities were not close neighbours. Morgan places Pompey's camp a mile to the west of Krini, just north of the village of Avra (formerly Sarikayia), and Caesar's camp some four miles to the east-south-east of Pompey's. Vrisa Fort show the map Related quests: Qamra, Medicine Woman. After Pompey's defeat former allies began to align themselves with Caesar as some came to believe the gods favored him, while for others it was simple self-preservation. Daochos built several monuments at Pharsalos dedicated to members of his family. [30] Pompey himself took up a position behind the left wing in order to oversee the course of the battle,[31] while the cavalry on that wing was placed under command of Titus Labienus, a former lieutenant of Caesar.[32]. The objective marker will lead you to Pharsalos Fort. On the decoy, she discovered Elpenor's letter, leading her straight to him.[1]. The location of the battlefield was for a long time the subject of controversy among scholars. [citation needed] Pompey lost the will to fight as he watched both cavalry and legions under his command break formation and flee from battle, and he retreated to his camp, leaving the rest of his troops at the centre and right flank to their own devices. Farsala is an economic and agricultural centre of the region. After the defeat of the Macedonian Kingdom, Pharsalos and the whole area became a part of the Roman Republic. Ptolemy, advised by his regent, the eunuch Pothinus, and his rhetoric tutor Theodotus of Chios, had failed to take into account that Caesar was granting amnesty to a great number of those of the senatorial faction in their defeat. A distinctive tribe of the city was that of Echecratidon. [20] He seems to have had at his disposal anywhere between 5,000 and 7,000 cavalry, and thousands of archers, slingers and light infantrymen in general. [6] Among the scholars arguing for the south side are Béquignon (1928), Bruère (1951), and Gwatkin (1956). [3] This ancient site was also associated by accounts of ancient writers with a holy place dedicated to Thetis called Thetidium. Assassin's Creed Wiki is a FANDOM Games Community. The province of Farsala (Greek: Επαρχία Φαρσάλων) was one of the provinces of the Larissa Prefecture. cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit} He gave this new line detailed instructions for the role they would play, hinting that upon them would rest the fortunes of the day, and gave strict orders to his third line not to charge until specifically ordered. Farsala is located in the southern part of Larissa regional unit, and is one of its largest towns. Farsala (Greek: Φάρσαλα), known in Antiquity as Pharsalos (Ancient Greek: Φάρσαλος, Latin: Pharsalus), is a city in southern Thessaly, in Greece. An interesting side-note on Palaepharsalus is that it was sometimes identified in ancient sources with Phthia, the home of Achilles.

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