Porter says the reason was that Enlightenment had come early to England and had succeeded so that the culture had accepted political liberalism, philosophical empiricism, and religious toleration of the sort that intellectuals on the continent had to fight for against powerful odds. Developments in the Industrial Revolution allowed consumer goods to be produced in greater quantities at lower prices, encouraging the spread of books, pamphlets, newspapers and journals – "media of the transmission of ideas and attitudes". Borrowing records from libraries in England, Germany, and North America indicate that more than 70 percent of books borrowed were novels. More enduring were the cultural achievements, which created a nationalist spirit in Poland. As the nascent public sphere expanded, it embraced a large variety of institutions and the most commonly cited were coffee houses and cafés, salons and the literary public sphere, figuratively localized in the Republic of Letters. By the mid-18th century, the Aufklärung (The Enlightenment) had transformed German high culture in music, philosophy, science and literature. Instead, the deist relies solely on personal reason to guide his creed,[73] which was eminently agreeable to many thinkers of the time. Less than 1 percent of the books were of a religious nature, indicating the general trend of declining religiosity. © 2012 Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages, University of OxfordAcknowledgements | Legal Notice, http://friedrich.uni-trier.de/de/static/suche_briefe/.

[127][128] A powerful element was prosveshchenie which combined religious piety, erudition and commitment to the spread of learning. His works remain today as one of the best pieces of Portuguese literature[citation needed]. [215] As public interest in natural philosophy grew during the 18th century, public lecture courses and the publication of popular texts opened up new roads to money and fame for amateurs and scientists who remained on the periphery of universities and academies. [162] In France, the creation of the public sphere was helped by the aristocracy's move from the King's palace at Versailles to Paris in about 1720, since their rich spending stimulated the trade in luxuries and artistic creations, especially fine paintings. [34] After 1700, a tremendous number of official academies and societies were founded in Europe and by 1789 there were over seventy official scientific societies. His observations of New Spain, published as the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain remains an important scientific and historical text. [14], Charles III, king of Spain from 1759 to 1788, tried to rescue his empire from decay through far-reaching reforms such as weakening the Church and its monasteries, promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernizing agriculture and avoiding wars. In addition to being conducive to Enlightenment ideologies of liberty, self-determination and personal responsibility, it offered a practical theory of the mind that allowed teachers to transform longstanding forms of print and manuscript culture into effective graphic tools of learning for the lower and middle orders of society. ", Michael J. Sauter, "The Enlightenment on trial: state service and social discipline in eighteenth-century Germany's public sphere. His Intellectual Development as Crown Prince. [199] From this basis, naturalists could then develop their own social ideals based on their scientific works. [60] Senior ministers Pombal in Portugal and Johann Friedrich Struensee in Denmark also governed according to Enlightenment ideals. The philosophical movement was led by Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece[18] rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, and for science based on experiments and observation.

[176], Many women played an essential part in the French Enlightenment, due to the role they played as salonnières in Parisian salons, as the contrast to the male philosophes. One particularly influential Enlightenment publication was the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia). Andrew, 406. [181], The writers of Grub Street, the Grub Street Hacks, were left feeling bitter about the relative success of the men of letters[182] and found an outlet for their literature which was typified by the libelle. Frederick II ( German: Friedrich II. The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s–1740s and especially in theatre and the arts peaked in the reign of King Stanisław August Poniatowski (second half of the 18th century). Commercial development likewise increased the demand for information, along with rising populations and increased urbanisation. [173] It was a forum that supported "free public examination of questions regarding religion or legislation". As a spill-over of the Enlightenment, nonsecular beliefs expressed first by Quakers and then by Protestant evangelicals in Britain and the United States emerged. [117] Science flourished as Alessandro Volta and Luigi Galvani made break-through discoveries in electricity. Hume's essay Of the Original Contract argues that governments derived from consent are rarely seen and civil government is grounded in a ruler's habitual authority and force. Frederick the Great, who ruled Prussia 1740–1786, was an enthusiast for French ideas (he ridiculed German culture and was unaware of the remarkable advances it was undergoing). The Café Procope in particular became a center of Enlightenment, welcoming such celebrities as Voltaire and Rousseau. [12] Many of the main political and intellectual figures behind the American Revolution associated themselves closely with the Enlightenment: Benjamin Franklin visited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia; Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence; and James Madison incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787. [134][136], Enlightenment historiography began in the period itself, from what Enlightenment figures said about their work. His skepticism was refined by John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) and David Hume's writings in the 1740s. However, it was not until 1682 that periodicals began to be more widely produced. For example, examining the catalogs of private libraries gives an image skewed in favor of the classes wealthy enough to afford libraries and also ignores censored works unlikely to be publicly acknowledged. [170] This widely available dictionary gave short definitions of words like genius and taste and was clearly influenced by the Enlightenment movement.

One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization. D'Alembert's introduction to l'Encyclopédie, for example, along with Immanuel Kant's essay response (the "independent thinkers"), both support the later model. In Russia, the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences in the mid-18th century. [35], The influence of science also began appearing more commonly in poetry and literature during the Enlightenment. [citation needed], The concept of enlightened absolutism was formally described by the German historian Wilhelm Roscher in 1847[8] and remains controversial among scholars.



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