They argue that Frederick understood himself as a Christian monarch in the sense of a Byzantine emperor, thus as God's "viceroy" on earth. But Otto's decisive military defeat at the Bouvines forced him to withdraw to the Guelph hereditary lands where, virtually without supporters, he died in 1218. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu).

Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles. Full Text Search Details... By Indrek Pringi Library of Congress Txu 987-756 Copyright January 29th 2001 Canadian Copyri... ...opyright: 1072425 Nov 12 th 2009 Due to the ideas presented in this book, I have had to use various terms and words that are not found in dictio... ...ns: Connection, and Separation. The German princes, supported by Innocent III, again elected Frederick king of Germany in 1215, and he was crowned king in Aachen on 23 July 1215 by one of the three German archbishops. Frederick lost the Imperial treasure and with it any hope of maintaining the impetus of his struggle against the rebellious communes and against the pope, who began plans for a crusade against Sicily. An attempt to invade the Kingdom of Sicily, under the command of Ranieri, was halted at Spello by Marino of Eboli, Imperial vicar of Spoleto. During his descent to Italy, Frederick had to divert his troops to quench a rebellion of Frederick II, Duke of Austria. This was a blow to the charlatanism under which physicians diagnosed dubious maladies in order to sell useless, even dangerous "cures". Frederick was born on the 26 th of December 1194 in Jesi. From about 1266, Frederick grew up at the Wittelsbach residence of Duke Louis II of Bavaria, where he became friends with Conradin, Duke of Swabia, the young son of King Conrad IV of Germany and heir to the Imperial Hohenstaufen dynasty.

Also claimant to the Austrian and Styrian duchies through his mother, Frederick took his residence near Vienna. This coronation robe can be found today in the Schatzkammer of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. [16] The Pope backed Heinrich Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia as his rival for the imperial crown and set in motion a plot to kill Frederick and Enzo, with the support of his (the pope's) brother-in-law Orlando de Rossi, another friend of Frederick's. Whilst Frederick's seeming bloodless recovery of Jerusalem for the cross brought him great prestige in some European circles, his decision to complete the crusade while excommunicated provoked Church hostility. Then the doctor felt his patient’s pulse once more. An army sent to invade the Kingdom of Sicily under the command of Cardinal Pietro Capocci was crushed in the Marche at the Battle of Cingoli in 1250. In 1267 he made the fatal decision to accompany Conradin on his expedition against Charles of Anjou, who had been crowned King of Sicily by Pope Clement IV and killed Conradin's uncle Manfred in the 1266 Battle of Benevento.

In the first month of that year the indomitable Ranieri of Viterbo died and the Imperial condottieri again reconquered Romagna, Marche and Spoleto; and Conrad, King of the Romans scored several victories in Germany against William of Holland.

At the same time, Frederick's oldest son Henry took the title of King of the Romans.

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